American   Academy   f   Manual   Medicine

Home  Search  Pain referral  Trigger points  Cranial nerve  Spinal nerve  Historical  About us  Contact us  Site map 

 

Diaphragm
Pointer Plus

Pointer Plus

The Pointer Plus is an easy to use trigger point (TP) locator which incorporates a push button stimulation feature to immediately treat Trigger point pain.

 

The Diaphragm is a muscle of the chest.

Anatomical Attachments:

  • Origin: Attaches to the xiphoid process, the inner surface of the lower six costal cartilages and to the L1 through the L3 lumbar vertebrae.
  • Insertion: Attaches into the central tendon.

Action: Respiration, it increases and decreases the volume in the thoracic and abdominal cavities.

Nerve Supply: Phrenic nerve (C3, C4, and C5).

Vascular supply: Inferior Phrenic artery.

Travell and Simons Trigger Point Pain Referral:  

Trigger Point Signs and Symptoms: There appears to be a stitch in the side, chest pain, dyspnea (when it is severe the individual may have feelings of impending doom), due to the individual not being able to take a full breath.

Trigger Point Activating and Perpetuating Factors: Vigorous exercise, persistent jogging, persistent cough.

Differential Diagnosis: (Segmental, Subluxation, Somatic dysfunction) C3 C4 or C5 radiculopathy, Peptic ulcer, Gastroesophageal reflux, Gallbladder disease, Appendicitis, Slipping rib syndrome (Tietze Syndrome), Rib fracture of lower ribs, Costochondritis, Dyspnea, Shortness of breath, Pleurisy, Polymyalgia rheumatica, Fibromyalgia, Herpes Zoster (Shingles), Pulmonary neoplasm (Lung cancer), Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disease (COPD, Emphysema), Pulmonary embolism, Cheyne-Stokes respiration (if CNS, coronary or pharmaceutical, insult is possible), Pneumonia or Bronchitis, Asthma, Anaphylactic shock, Hyperventilation secondary to anxiety reaction, Coughing, Hiccups, Angina pectoris, Myocardial infarction, Hepatic disease (Hepatomegaly), Splenic disease (Splenomegaly or Rupture), Pancreatitis, Pancreatic carcinoma, Sprain/Strain or Tear (of the Rectus abdominis, Internal or External Obliques, or Intercostals), Systemic infections or inflammation, Nutritional inadequacy, Metabolic imbalance, Toxicity, Side effects of medication.

 

Back to Top

 

Return to Search 

 



Home  Search  Pain referral  Trigger points  Cranial nerve  Spinal nerve  Historical  About us  Contact us  Site map 

Continuing Education Copyright 2001, 2004, 2006. All rights reserved.