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The Erector Spinae Group
Pointer Plus

Pointer Plus

The Pointer Plus is an easy to use trigger point (TP) locator which incorporates a push button stimulation feature to immediately treat Trigger point pain.

The nine (9) muscles of the Erector spinae group are deep back muscles. They include the Iliocostalis Lumborum, Iliocostalis Thoracis, Iliocostalis Cervicis, Longissimus Thoracis, Longissimus Cervicis, Longissimus Capitis, Spinalis Thoracis, Spinalis Cervicis, and Spinalis Capitis.


Longissimus Capitis

The Longissimus Capitis is a deep muscle of the back.

Anatomical Attachments:

  • Origin: Attaches to the transverse processes of T1 through T5 vertebrae and articular processes of C3 through C7.
  • Insertion: Attaches to the posterior border of the mastoid process of the temporal bone.

Action: Extends the head and rotates the face toward the ipsilateral side.

Synergist: Trapezius, Semispinalis capitis, Rectus capitis posterior major and minor, Oblique capitis superior, Splenius capitis, Sternocleidomastoid

Antagonist: Longus capitis, Rectus capitis anticus.

Nerve Supply: Posterior rami of the spinal nerves

Vascular supply: Intercostal and lumbar arteries, muscular branches of the occipital, and the deep cervical branches of the costocervical trunk arteries.

Travell and Simons Trigger Point Pain Referral:  

Trigger Point Signs and Symptoms: Headaches, tenderness over the back of the head and neck, numbness and tingling in the scalp.

Trigger Point Activating and Perpetuating Factors: Acute trauma, acceleration/deceleration injury, chronic emotional stress, postural stressors, persistent neck and shoulder contraction, neck immobilization (cervical collar).

Differential Diagnosis: Degenerative disc disease, (Segmental, Subluxation, Somatic dysfunction) C2 or C3 radiculopathy (Bulging Prolapsed, Herniated Disc), Fibromyalgia, Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid arthritis, Intervertebral or Vertebral stenosis, Vertebral vascular disorder, Cerebral aneurysm, Cerebral neoplasm (Brain cancer), Military neck (Absence of normal cervical spine lordosis), Cervical Spine Hyperlordosis, Thoracic Spine Hyperkyphosis, Scoliosis, Tension headaches, Cluster headaches, Suboccipital articular dysfunction, Mastoiditis, Cervical arthritis, Cervical syndrome, Subacute meningitis, Polymyalgia rheumatica, Polymyositis, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Acceleration/Deceleration injury (Whiplash), Eye Strain, Ocular disease, Sinusitis, Tetanus, Systemic infections or inflammation, Nutritional inadequacy, Metabolic imbalance, Toxicity, Side effects of medication.


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